Climate[ edit ] Most internees came from the San Francisco Bay Area, which has a warm-summer Mediterranean climatewith moist mild winters and dry summers.
Visit Website On December 7,just hours after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the FBI rounded-up 1, Japanese community and religious leaders, arresting them without evidence and freezing their assets.
In January, the arrestees were transferred to facilities in MontanaNew Mexico and North Dakotamany unable to inform their families and most remaining for the duration of the war. Concurrently, the FBI searched the private homes of thousands of Japanese residents on the West Coast, seizing items considered contraband.
In a panic, some politicians called for their mass incarceration. Japanese-owned fishing boats were impounded. Some Japanese residents were arrested and 1, people—one percent of the Japanese population in Hawaii—were sent to camps on the U.
DeWitt, leader of the Western Defense Command, believed that the civilian population needed to be taken control of to prevent a repeat of Pearl Harbor. To argue his case, DeWitt prepared a report filled with known falsehoods, such as examples of sabotage that were later revealed to be the result of cattle damaging power lines.
His original plan included Italians and Germans, though the idea of rounding-up European-descent Americans was not as popular. At Congressional hearings in Februarya majority of the testimonies, including those from California Governor Culbert L. Biddle pleaded with the president that mass evacuation of citizens was not required, preferring smaller, more targeted security measures.
Regardless, Roosevelt signed the order. Inland state citizens were not keen for new Japanese residents, and they were met with racist resistance. Ten state governors voiced opposition, fearing the Japanese might never leave, and demanded they be locked up if the states were forced to accept them.
A civilian organization called the War Relocation Authority was set up in March to administer the plan, with Milton S.
Eisenhower, from the Department of Agriculture, to lead it. Eisenhower only lasted until Juneresigning in protest over what he characterized as incarcerating innocent citizens.
People had six days notice to dispose of their belongings other than what they could carry. Japanese Americans reported to centers near their homes. From there they were transported to a relocation center where they might live for months before transfer to a permanent wartime residence. These centers were located in remote areas, often reconfigured fairgrounds and racetracks featuring buildings not meant for human habitation, like horse stalls or cow sheds, that had been converted for that purpose.
The Santa Anita Assembly Center, just several miles northeast of Los Angeles, was a de-facto city with 18, interred, 8, of whom lived in stables. Food shortages and substandard sanitation were prevalent in these facilities.
Jobs ranged from doctors to teachers to laborers and mechanics. A couple of assembly centers were the sites of camouflage net factories, which provided work.
There were opportunities for farm work during a labor shortage, and over 1, internees were sent to other states to do seasonal farm work. Over 4, internees were allowed to leave to attend college.
Typically some form of barracks, several families were housed together, with communal eating areas. Residents that were designated as dissidents went to a special camp in Tule Lake, California.
Two relocation centers in Arizona were located on Indian reservations, despite the protests of tribal councils, who were overruled by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Each relocation center was its own town, featuring schools, post offices and work facilities, as well as farmland for growing food and keeping livestock, all surrounded by barbed wire and guard towers.
Net factories offered work at several relocation centers. One housed a naval ship model factory. There were also factories in different centers that manufactured items for use in other centers, including garments, mattresses and cabinets.
Several centers had agricultural processing plants.
In Lordsburg, New Mexico, internees were delivered by trains and marched two miles at night to the camp. An elderly man attempted to flee and was shot and killed. After settling in, at least two men were shot and killed while trying to escape.Official website of the World War II Japanese American Internment Camp which held over internees for /2 years in the Utah desert.
Although Topaz opened on Sept. 11, , many barracks as well as the schools were not competed until October. Between and , more than 11, people of Japanese ancestry were forcibly removed from their homes in California by the federal government and moved to the Central Utah Relocation Center (Topaz) in Utah's West Desert.
Utah history professor Taylor explores the impact on the issei and nissei of the San Francisco Bay area of their World War II journey from their homes to their assembly at Tanforan Racetrack and then their internment at the Topaz, Utah, lausannecongress2018.coms: 1.
In the Utah desert, a few miles from the city of Delta, over 11, Japanese Americans were interned at the Topaz War Relocation Center during World War II. The Topaz Museum tells their stories and captures the events of this painful, yet little known, chapter in American history/5(41).
Internment camps were scattered all over the interior West, in isolated desert areas of Arizona, California, Utah, Idaho, Colorado, and Wyoming, where Japanese-Americans were forced to carry on their lives under harsh conditions.
The Topaz War Relocation Center was also known as the Central Utah Relocation Center (Topaz) and briefly as the Abraham Relocation Center. It was a camp which housed Americans of Japanese descent and immigrants who had come to the United States from Japan, called lausannecongress2018.comon: Millard County, Utah, United States.