Prepositional Phrases-Adjectival or Adverbial?
The police investigation uncovered no evidence. Notice how the verbs and adjectives in the left side of the chart are changed to nouns and noun phrases in the right side. This process of nominalisation creates complexity, formality and objectivity and is a feature used by all good academic writers.
Locating Head Nouns in Noun Phrases It is common for nominalised noun phrases to contain more than one noun. Consider the following example: There is only one head noun in every noun phrase because all other information either before or after provides additional information about that noun.
It is important to understand that head nouns are not found in surrounding relative clauses, participle clauses or prepositional phrases phrases beginning with a preposition because their function is to provide information about the head noun. Locating head nouns in noun phrases is an important first step in understanding the structure of nominalised sentences, and in using nominalisation in your writing.
Can you identify the head nouns in the following? The infrastructure damaged by the storm The official death toll from the typhoon The coastal Philippine provinces of Leyte and Samar The three countries most vulnerable to natural disasters The oldest big cat fossils ever found Used with permission from the BBC Answers: The Importance of Nominalisation Read the following excerpt from a typical BBC article and notice the high degree of nominalisation the writer uses.
Nominalised sections are in red. Its crew is now preparing to dispatch aid to the Panay Island, in the far west of Cebu. About 11 million people have been affected by Typhoon Haiyan, according to UN estimates. Health experts have warned that the worst-affected areas are entering a peak danger period for the spread of infectious diseases.
Used with permission from the BBC: The Value of a College Degree The escalating cost of higher education is causing many to question the value of continuing education beyond high school. Many wonder whether the high cost of tuition, the opportunity cost of choosing college over full-time employment, and the accumulation of thousands of dollars of debt is, in the long run, worth the investment.
The risk is especially large for low-income families who have a difficult time making ends meet without the additional burden of college tuition and fees. There is considerable support for the notion that the rate of return on investment in higher education is high enough to warrant the financial burden associated with pursuing a college degree.
Though the earnings differential between college and high school graduates varies over time, college graduates, on average, earn more than high school graduates.
ED -- Publication Date:Describing Trends: Noun phrases an increase a surge a rise a jump a leap a decrease a decline a drop a tumble a plunge at a similar level a steady trend maintained stability a period of stability a fluctuation an oscillation Verb phrases. Building Clauses.
A clause is a collection of grammatically-related words including a predicate and a subject (though sometimes the subject is implied). A collection of grammatically-related words without a subject or without a predicate is called a phrase.
Clauses are the building blocks of sentences: every sentence consists of one or more clauses.
In fact, nouns in academic English are often used with a modifier such as an adjective, another noun, a prepositional phrase or a clause. So when you’re reading academic texts you should make an extra effort to notice which words and phrases typically go with which nouns.
A good way to make your writing more academic and stylish is to use some noun phrases in your essay. Noun phrases give the reader more information about a noun. For example, with the nouns prices or the Internet, you can make the noun phrases rising house prices or .
I relished the various highly practical points made by the author on diverse topics such as common academic noun phrases, tricky irregular academic plural nouns, meaning of citation verbs, adverbs and adjectives in academic writing, formal academic word choice, "this" + enumerative phrases, hedging in academic writing, including "two-steps Reviews: 6.
Modification of noun-phrases Written English is lexically dense - there is a higher proportion of content words per clause.
|Phrases to Avoid in your IELTS Essay||If these ideas are applied to the field of writing instruction, then we are forced to ask the question: Clearly, there is not one definitive style, approach or list of constituent elements that results in good writing and if there was, that would only serve to remove the wonder, the beauty and the personal, potentially resulting in the sterile and the functional, creating a tick-box approach that is both bland and formulaic.|
|Academic collocation list||For example, "judgement" rather than "judge", "development" rather than "develop", "admiration" rather than "admire". This information enables us to formulate precise questions.|
|IELTS Writing Tips: 10 Sentences to Avoid||One major difference between general and academic language is that an academic register relies much more heavily on nouns. Julie used some examples, which we analysed together, to show that in a typical conversation, the verb:|
This can be done by modification of noun-phrases.