Operation torch

Under pressure from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to open a second front, the Western Allies debated how they might best engage Germany. American strategists advocated the Bolero Plan, a build-up of forces in Great Britain in advance of an assault on the European continent in Operation Sledgehammer or Operation Roundup. The British, however, favoured an invasion of North Africa Operations Gymnast and Super-Gymnast that would secure the Mediterranean theatre once and for all. Owing to a number of factors—notably the American decision to contest the Japanese occupation of Guadalcanal in the southern Solomon Islands —the British eventually prevailed.

Operation torch

Operation Torch Video Russia was constantly pushing the Allies to start a new front against the Axis in west Europe but in the Allies, mainly the British didn't think that they were strong enough to attack Germany in Europe. Even though American military leadership wanted a landing in France and were confident that they could successfully pull it off, Roosevelt supported Churchill in his request that the Allies make preparations for an invasion of French North Africa.

The plan that would later evolve into Operation Torch was to first make their way into North Africa and then later invade Sicily and move onto mainland Italy. Such a victory would have been very important for the Allies because it would have cleared the Mediterranean for shipping purposes.

The first planned targets of the Allies were Morocco and Algeria. These two countries were under the rule of Vichy France, which the Allies considered to be in collaboration with Germany so both of the African countries were legitimate targets for the Allies.

Morocco had around 60, French troops and a small naval fleet at Casablanca, but instead of fighting against the French army the Allies wanted to cooperate with them.

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Operation Torch was under the command of General Eisenhower and the headquarters were in Gibraltar. Rober Daniel Murphy located in Algiers at the time was assigned with the task to determine if and how cooperative the French army would be.

What the Allies wanted above all else was a good amphibious landing, for that purpose Casablanca, Oran and Algiers were chosen as the landing sites. The Eastern and final task force which was under the command of General Ryder was to land at Algiers with 20, troops.

The landings started on 8th November. When the landings began there were no air or naval bombardments because the Allies hoped Seated are from left to right Gens. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Courtney H. Hodges, and Leonard T. Gerow; standing are from left to right Gens.

Weyland, and Richard E.

Operation Torch is the name given to the British-US invasion into North Africa during World War II. Defensive fire in an Allied air raid in November during the WW2 Operation Torch invasion in Northern Africa. Operation Torch, also known as Operation Gymnast, was a joint US-British invasion of. On November 8, , the military forces of the United States and the United Kingdom launched an amphibious operation against French North Africa, in particular the French-held territories of Algeria and Morocco. That landing, code-named ‘Torch,’ reflected the results of long and contentious. Other articles where Operation Torch is discussed: North Africa campaigns: Operation Torch: The Anglo-U.S. invasion of northwest Africa had its origins at the Arcadia Conference in Washington, D.C., in the winter of –42 and at meetings in London the following July. Under pressure from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.

It was the sniper fire of the French that proved far more difficult to deal with. Because of the unexpected French resistance planes had to be launched from the carriers to protect the landing beaches.

For the Allies the Vichy French resistance was a mere inconvenience and not a real military problem. Patton's main target was the capture of Casablanca, the city was captured on November 10th when he took the city without resistance, just two days into Operation Torch a major objective was already accomplished.

North Africa campaigns - Operation Torch | lausannecongress2018.com

The major problems at the Oran landings were also more of a logistics nature, the beach that was meant for the landing hadn't been properly inspected and the shallow waters lead to damage on some of the landing craft which slowed down the deployment of equipment and troops.

A few ships of the French navy also tried to attack the Allied fleet but were quickly sunk or driven away and by November 9th the French troops had surrendered.

Other articles where Operation Torch is discussed: North Africa campaigns: Operation Torch: The Anglo-U.S. invasion of northwest Africa had its origins at the Arcadia Conference in Washington, D.C., in the winter of –42 and at meetings in London the following July. Under pressure from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. About This Content Operation Torch is an expansion of the acclaimed wargame, Gary Grigsby’s War in the West. This new addition to the most detailed strategy game available on the Western Front of WWII, introduces 10 new challenging scenarios, including both historical and what-if lausannecongress2018.com: Operation Torch (8–16 November , formerly Operation Gymnast) was an Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War. Torch was the debut of the mass involvement of US troops in the European–North African Theatre.

The Algiers landings also went according or even better than planned. The Vichy government had their hands full with dealing with an attempted coup to handle the Allied invasion and by the end of the day the landings at Algiers began the city surrendered to the Allies.

The French resistance, despite being surprising was minimal and so were the casualties of the Allies. After regrouping the landed Allied troops moved to Tunisia. The German troops that were battling with Montgomery at El Alamein were now retreating in the direction of the now landed Allies, with seemingly nowhere else to retreat.

Consequences of Operation Torch When France surrendered to Germany earlier in World War 2, the Germans agreed to allow southern France to remain free of occupying forces and to be governed from Vichy. A related condition to this agreement; however, was that Vichy French forces overseas would resist attacks by the Allied forces to include naval forces.

Planning a second front in Africa

Due to the lack of resistance by the French in North Africa, the Germans immediately occupied southern France and seized the remainder of the French Fleet located in Toulon Operation Lila. The majority of the ships were scuttled at the dock; however, before the Germans could press them into service.Operation Torch is an expansion of the acclaimed wargame, Gary Grigsby’s War in the West.

This new addition to the most detailed strategy game available on the Western Front of WWII, introduces 10 new challenging scenarios, including both historical and what-if lausannecongress2018.com: $ In preparation for Operation Torch, General Henri Giraud was smuggled out of Vichy France with the aid of the resistance.

Though Eisenhower had intended to make Giraud the commander of French forces in North Africa after the invasion, the Frenchman demanded that . Operation Torch was the name of the Allied invasion of northwest Africa in the hopes and goal of removing the Axis presence on the continent.

The operation marked the first time that British and American forces worked together on an invasion plan and would take place from November , Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign of the Second World War which started on 8 November The Soviet Union had pressed the United States and United Kingdom to start operations in + dead wounded: 1,+ dead, 1, wounded.

Operation torch

Operation Torch was also the first time American forces witnessed the horrors of Nazi concentration camps, which existed in parts of North Africa in French colonies.

The campaign cemented an important alliance between Britain, the United States, and France. On November 8, , the military forces of the United States and the United Kingdom launched an amphibious operation against French North Africa, in particular the French-held territories of Algeria and Morocco.

That landing, code-named ‘Torch,’ reflected the results of long and contentious.

Operation Torch | World War 2 Facts